|Effect of erythritol formulation on the mortality, fecundity and physiological excretion in Drosophila suzukii.
|Year of Publication
|Tang, SBee, Lee, JC, Jung, JKyo, Choi, M-Y
|J Insect Physiol
|Animals, Blueberry Plants, Dose-Response Relationship, Drug, Drosophila, Erythritol, Female, Fertility, Hemolymph, Insect Control, Insecticides, Male, Sucrose
Previously, we studied various combinations of non-nutritive sugars including erythritol and erythrose having a potentially insecticidal effect on Drosophila suzukii. The study suggested two potential physiological changes causing fly mortality: 1) starvation from the feeding of non-metabolizable erythritol and erythrose; 2) abnormal osmotic pressure increased in the hemolymph with erythritol transported from the midgut. In the present study, sucrose and erythritol were applied to blueberries and effects of these combinations on fly mortality and fecundity were monitored in the lab and greenhouse. In the lab, two sucrose/erythritol formulations (0.5M sucrose/2M erythritol, 1M sucrose/2M erythritol) resulted in the highest mortality and the lowest fecundity among D. suzukii adults. Two formulations, therefore, were selected for further evaluation with blueberry bushes and fruits in the greenhouse; fly survival with 0.5M sucrose/2M erythritol was significantly lower than 1M sucrose/2M erythritol for 7days. Unlike the smaller container, mortality occurred faster in the greenhouse probably because flies moved more in the bigger cage accelerating the exhaustion of energy reserves in the body. We examined presence of erythritol in the hemolymph and frass to determine the nutritional metabolism and absorption of erythritol in D. suzukii. Unlike sucrose, a large amount of erythritol was observed in the hemolymph of the fly that ingested 0.5M sucrose/0.5M erythritol. Erythritol was also found in the frass of the same fly. The results imply that erythritol might be directly transported from the midgut without being metabolized and stored, but is accumulated in the hemolymph which in turn elevates the osmotic pressure in the fly hemolymph. For practical application, the sucrose/erythritol combination would be more effective than erythritol alone because the combination tastes sweeter to elicit more feeding. This erythritol formulation can be a potential insecticide used alone or as a delivery agent combined with conventional or biological insecticides to enhance their efficacy.
|J. Insect Physiol.